Superstitious belief As “false conceptions of causation,” superst

Superstitious belief As “false conceptions of causation,” superstitious beliefs are conceptually removed from the touching and jumping behavior described above. They usually lack a direct motor manifestation. In fact, most characteristic of modern superstitious beliefs are rather abstract ideas about a paranormal

causation of coincidences (telepathy, clairvoyance, precognition). These ideas are Selleckchem SAR405838 cross-culturally universal and, within a society, largely resistant to education. Designated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical as “magical ideation” (MI), they are a core element of positive symptoms in schizotypy,9 equivalent to the delusions of reference in schizophrenia. While magical or superstitious beliefs can be conceived as the cognitive equivalents of superstitious behaviors, it is important to note that each type of superstition can occur without the other. In the pigeon, there is clear evidence, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical obtained from well-designed

studies, for a dissociation between motor and cognitive superstitions. It was shown, for instance, that the same birds, whose pecking superstitions were based on temporal contiguity instead of contingency, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were well able to distinguish between events elicited by chance and those controlled by their own behavior.10 In human subjects, a similar dissociation was demonstrated when studying the relationship between superstitious behavior and superstitious belief.7 In a computer game, high and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical low scorers on the MI scale,9 an instrument designed to quantify superstitious beliefs in everyday life, displayed superstitious behavior to a comparable degree. However, the subjects believing in paranormal forms of causation were more inclined than the disbelievers to assume a causal relationship between their (irrelevant) behavior and success in the game (see Figure 1 for more details). Figure 1. A computer game differentiating superstitious behavior and superstitious belief.7 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical A: The screen as it was

presented to 40 healthy subjects. They were instructed to move the mouse MTMR9 from the lower left corner onto the field containing the trap (using the … Superstitious behavior and superstitious belief in OCD The distinction between superstitious behavior and superstitious belief is crucial for any theoretical account of claimed associations between superstitiousness and OCD. As indicated above, in healthy individuals superstitious motor behavior can occur without accompanying beliefs in nonexistent causative forces. Conversely, the formation of superstitious beliefs may take place without direct mediation by the motor system. We suggest, therefore, that different neural circuits are involved in the genesis of the two forms of superstitiousness.

There are different possibilities to decrease toxicity, one of which is the reduction of the standard dose of definitive

RT. Another strategy is the replacement of Selleckchem Carfilzomib Cisplatin with cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for chemoradiation. Cisplatin is still considered the gold standard for chemoradiation, but cetuximab may be less toxic with comparable treatment results in retrospective analyses.39–41 Another strategy to reduce morbidity for HPV-positive patients is the primary treatment by surgery employing new, minimally invasive surgical approaches that allow resection of OPSCC via an oral approach, especially Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Effective primary surgical management may provide an opportunity for deintensification

of adjuvant treatments with resultant improvements in patients’ post-treatment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical QOL, without compromising oncologic outcomes. The ability to avoid incisions in the face and neck preserves neuromuscular structures that are critical for speech and swallowing. Preliminary case series of TORS have reported encouraging oncologic, functional, and QOL outcomes compared with primary CRT.42,43 TORS has been used for OPSCC treatment for several years driven by the desire to offer a less morbid alternative to chemoradiation, so long-term functional and oncologic results Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical are increasingly available to allow comparison of this technique Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical with traditional approaches.29,30,44–46 The aim of the current review is to provide an evaluation of the existing literature with regard to the oncologic and functional outcomes following treatment of OPSCC with TORS. TECHNICAL ADVANTAGES OF TORS Transoral robotic surgery was first introduced into the literature by Weinstein et al.47 in 2005 with their case report of a supraglottic laryngectomy performed in a canine model. The development of TORS in its various human applications has been steadily progressing Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical since,

with feasibility studies confirming the safety and usability of this technology in human patients.48,49 TORS was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December of 2009 for treatment of head and neck malignancies. TORS has several technical advantages; first, translation Dichloromethane dehalogenase of the surgeon’s hand to scaled down movements of the robotic arms, filters tremors. This feature provides more accurate dissection in tenuous areas such as over the internal carotid artery in parapharyngeal dissections. Second, the three-dimensional high-definition image at the surgeon’s console provides improved visualization, which helps to compensate the lack of haptic feedback.50,51 Third, angled scopes also improve visualization and help the surgeon navigate around corners, as is often needed in tongue base surgery.

The GJB1 gene sequence was screened for the DNA variants using tw

The GJB1 gene sequence was screened for the DNA variants using two approaches i.e., single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP) and heteroduplex analysis (HA). The PCR products, obtained by both methods, were separated on a 9% acrylamide gel (37.5:1 acrylamide/bisacrylamide). The gels were silver-stained and dried (Fig. (Fig.3A3A).

Figure 3a SSCP analysis. An altered migration pattern of PCR products corresponding to exon 2 of GJB1 gene. Lanes 1, 2: proband (heterozygous) and her Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical son (hemizygous), respectively; lanes 3-10,- healthy controls (lanes 6,8 : healthy females; lanes: 3, 4, 5, 7, … The PCR products showing an anomalous pattern of DNA migration were sequenced using a BigDyeTM Terminator Version 3.1 Ready Reaction Cycle Sequencing kit on the ABI 3730/xl Genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Poland). The GJB1 gene Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical sequence was analyzed by comparing it with reference sequences “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”NM_001097642.1″,”term_id”:”148233401″,”term_text”:”NM_001097642.1″NM_001097642.1 (transcript variant 1) and “type”:”entrez-nucleotide”,”attrs”:”text”:”NM_000166.4″,”term_id”:”148223887″,”term_text”:”NM_000166.4″NM_000166.4 (transcript variant 2) in the Basic Local

ABT-263 chemical structure Alignment Search Tool (Blast NCBI – The sequencing of exon 2 of the GJB1 gene revealed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a hemi-zygous T to G transversion at nucleotide 535 of the GJB1 gene, resulting (by conceptual translation) in a substitution of cysteine with glycine at codon 179 of the Cx32 protein (Fig. (Fig.3B3B). Figure 3b Sequence analysis of GJB1 gene. A: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical GJB1 gene sequence in a healthy individual as control. B: c.535 T > G heterozygous substitution in proband, indicated with arrow. To confirm the presence of the c.535 T > G substitution, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis with CviKI-1 (New England BioLabs, (UK) Ltd. 75/77 Knowl Piece, Wilbury Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Way Hitchin, Herts. SG4 0TY,United Kingdom), was

performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The digested PCR products were separated on a 10% Astemizole acrylamide gel stained with ethidium bromide, and visualized using UV light (data not shown). Discussion The present data refer to a five-generation CMT1X family of Polish origin, in which a novel Cys179 Gly mutation was identified in the proband (IV:7), and in her son. Till now, two other substitutions (Cys179Arg and Cys179Tyr) have been reported in codon 179 of the Cx32 protein. However as no clinical or electrophysiological findings were given for them, it was impossible to compare our patients with the CMT1X phenotype associated with these two mutations (9, 10). The phenotype of the CMT1X family here described is typical, the location of Cys179Gly mutation occurring within a highly-conservative CysX4CysX5Cys motif of the second extra-cellular loop of the Cx32 protein.

That is, it is a quantification of the rule that determines how a

That is, it is a quantification of the rule that determines how a choice is made. When response bias shifted to a relatively more liberal bias, that is, the decision criterion changed, increased activation was observed in the left IFG. This seems to be in line with the aforementioned findings from Crone and colleagues (Crone et al. 2006) who observed an increase in activity in this region when the rule used to make a choice needed to be changed. Previous studies investigating the

neural correlates of perceptual decision-making have implicated the left SFS in the computation Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of perceptual decisions (Heekeren et al. 2004, 2006; Pleger Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical et al. 2006; Philiastides et al. 2011). For example, Heekeren and colleagues (Heekeren et al. 2006) found that activation in

the left superior frontal sulcus reflected the comparison of accumulated evidence needed for the discrimination of perceptual stimuli. When activity in this region was disrupted, the rate of sensory Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical evidence accumulation decreased and decisions became less accurate (Philiastides et al. 2011). While the left SFS may be involved in comparing sensory evidence, we (Reckless et al. 2013) previously found that a more ventral region of the frontal cortex, the left IFG may be involved in adjusting the decision criterion between different decision environments. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical However, the block design of that study limited how this

relationship could be interpreted. The present findings suggest that the left IFG is indeed involved in adapting the decision criterion. This is in keeping with findings from Rahnev and colleagues (Rahnev et al. 2011) who found that individuals who adjusted their response bias more based on information from predictive cues had greater activation in the left IFG. However, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical one problem that arises when considering results across perceptual decision-making studies is whether the perceptual decision-making task was one of detection or one of discrimination and what decision-making model was used to evaluate the Depsipeptide datasheet behavioral however and imaging findings. This study used a detection task and signal detection theory (SDT). Rahnev and colleagues (Rahnev et al. 2011), who found a similar relationship between response bias and activation in the left IFG, used a discrimination task and SDT. The finding that there is a relationship between response bias and the left IFG in both a discrimination and a detection task suggests that the relationship is independent of the type of perceptual decision-making task performed. A limitation of this study was that it used one theory of decision-making to investigate the neural correlates of the decision criterion.

At test, responding to the CS+ and CS− without EtOH was assessed

At test, responding to the CS+ and CS− without EtOH was assessed in the alcohol-associated PDT context, the nonalcohol context or a novel context. The novel context consisted of the remaining context type that had not been utilized during either PDT or alternate, nonalcohol context exposure. Each rat was tested in each of the three conditions using a within-subjects Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical design, with one PDT session and three sessions of alternate-context exposure between tests. These additional sessions were conducted in order to minimize response decrements produced by experiencing the CS+ without ethanol at test. Experiment 3: Impact of context extinction on Pavlovian-conditioned alcohol-seeking behavior This

study investigated if the impact of the alcohol context on responding elicited by the CS+ was mediated by the capacity of the alcohol context to function as an excitatory Pavlovian-conditioned

stimulus. We predicted that extinguishing the context-alcohol association after PDT would diminish the influence of context on CS+ responding when both cues were subsequently tested Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in PDT context. Rats (n = 24) received 15 PDT sessions where the CS+ was paired with 20% EtOH. Six rats were dropped because they failed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical to acquire PDT (final sample sizes: Context Type 1, n = 8; Context Type 2, n = 10). The remainder received eight sessions of exposure to the alcohol-associated PDT context (Group 1; n = 9) or to an alternate context (Group 2; n = 9). In both cases, the cues and EtOH Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical were withheld. At test, the CS+ and CS− were presented without alcohol in the PDT context (Test 1). A second,

identical test was conducted 10 days later to determine the impact of context extinction on AZD6244 solubility dmso spontaneous recovery of CS+ responding (spontaneous recovery test). Between tests, rats remained in their home cages and were handled regularly. Statistical analyses Dependent variables for PDT and test included: normalized CS+ and normalized Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical CS− responding (calculated by subtracting port entries during 10-sec intervals before each CS from port entries during the corresponding CS); post-CS+ responding (port entries during 10-sec intervals after each CS+); total port entries (number of port entries per session); and responding outside CS+ (total port entries minus CS+ responding). The number of port entries made during each CS+ trial at test was analyzed in blocks of two trials, yielding a total of 8 blocks. During exposure to the alternate-context or context-extinction only sessions only total port entries were recorded. PDT data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with CS (CS+, CS−) and Session (as per number of sessions) as within-subject repeated-measures. Total port entries across PDT and total port entries during alternate-context exposure or context extinction were analyzed separately across the within-subject factor of Session (as per number of sessions).

The superior endosomal escape of liposomes prepared with the form

The superior endosomal escape of liposomes prepared with the former was attributed to the higher fluidity of cholesterol over DSPE, a superior fluidity favoring interaction with endosomal membranes and the resulting endosomal escape and transfection efficiency. Hydrophobicity was also shown to be a learn more determinant for the design of smart Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical multifunctional nanocarriers. Hansen et al. compared UV-triggered TaT peptide-mediated liposome internalization with a 16 or 12 carbons lipid anchor [306]. In addition to better internalization, liposomes with a C16 anchor were less prone to aggregation than those with a C12

anchor. The authors suggested the more hydrophobic alkyl chain favored liposomal Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical insertion and the burial

of the TaT peptide in a PEG-loop for the best UV-responsiveness and stability in cell culture media with bovine serum albumin. Insertion of negatively charged lipids such as cardiolipin has been used to increase the retention of positively charged drugs in liposomes [45]. This was recently Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical well illustrated for the preparation of mitoxantrone liposomes (mitoxantrone-complexed liposomes) by electrostatic complexation between anionic cardiolipin-based liposomes and cationic mitoxantrone [307]. While loading efficiencies of 95% were obtained with anionic liposomes using cardiolipin (CA), cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS), Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical egg L-α-phosphatidylglycerol (PG), or L-α-phosphatidylserine (PS), only 3.8% loading was achieved with neutral liposomes. The therapeutic activity of the different anionic

liposomal mitoxantrone preparations was in good agreement with release of mitoxantrone, that is, with the mitoxantrone release in vitro after heparin treatment. CHEMS liposomes had the lowest retention capacity and had virtually no impact on the survival of peritoneal carcinoma-bearing mice, and both Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical PS and PG liposomes had intermediate mitoxantrone retention and exhibited higher therapeutic activity than free drug, albeit still inferior to that of CA liposomes capable of the highest mitoxantrone MTMR9 retention in vitro. Inclusion of anionic lipids should be coupled with PEGylation, since a negative charge directs liposomes to liver and spleen [308]. Lipid composition is also determinant for stimuli-responsive drug release. Goldenbogen et al. reported no calcein release from disulfide conjugated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes after treatment with a reducing agent, whereas reduction-induced release was observed from liposomes including 55% of unsaturated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine [297]. Note that Candiani et al. also incorporated DOPE in the lipid composition for bioreducible gene delivery, stressing the importance of DOPE as a helper lipid for membrane destabilization [299].

However, TMX showed a considerable solubility in PEG 400 and Tra

However, TMX showed a considerable solubility in PEG 400 and Transcutol P, but it resulted significantly lower than the selected compounds (P < 0.05). Finally, Labrafil

1944 CS was discarded because it was the co-surfactant with the lowest drug solubilizing capacity. Solubility of TMX in PS 80 was around 5mg/g; however, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical it is expected that these results slightly impact on the final therapeutic agent solubilization. The most important factor that contributes to the final ME solubilizing capacity in poorly water soluble drugs is the solubility in the lipid internal phase [26]. 3.2. Selleckchem GSI-IX preliminary Cytotoxicity Study In order to avoid interference when testing selected vehicles for in vitro performance, a preliminary cytotoxicity experiment on the MCF-7 cancer cell line was performed. As it can be observed in Figure 3(a), only samples containing 5% m/v of PS 80 exhibited low cytotoxicity; higher concentrations than 5% m/v showed a percentage of cell viability after treatment lower than 50%. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Therefore, it can be concluded that formulations containing PS

80 at concentrations above 5% would be toxic to the cells. Because of it, false-positive results could be addressed when evaluating their in vitro performance. As a result of the preliminary surfactant cytotoxicity experiments and in order to avoid excipient related Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical effects on the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cells, final formulations have been diluted prior to their in vitro performance evaluation. Oleic acid was the only no polar phase associated with cytotoxicity effect at both assayed concentrations (Figure 3(b)). Labrafil CS was the only cosurfactant which showed that inconvenience. Figure 3 (a) Cell viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells incubated at 37°C for 48hrs with Polysorbate Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical 80 at 25, 20, 10, and 5% m/v, respectively. Each bar represents the

mean of three samples ± SD. (b) Cell viability of MCF-7 breast cancer … 3.3. Screening and Optimization of MEs Based on solubility and cytotoxicity results, the following excipients were selected to perform the preliminary microemulsion screening: PS 80 as surfactant, ethanol, and PG as co-surfactants and PC and Capmul MCM L as the oil phases. Once the screening was finished, a number of compositions which resulted to be isotropic were selected and are shown in Table 1. Sodium butyrate The selection included compositions with a relative proportion of PS 80 lower than 20%, relative concentrations of each one of the oil phases between 8 and 16%; the level of the co-surfactants was fixed in 25%. None of these compositions containing PG as cosurfactant, matched the adopted criterion for considering ME system and they were discarded for the next step of selection. Table 1 Composition of the selected microemulsions after the screening of excipients.

Four trials of each type were grouped in a block lasting 32 sec

Four trials of each type were grouped in a block lasting 32 sec. The task included 18 blocks (six high-, six medium-, and six low-load working-memory blocks) alternated, in a pseudorandom order,

to six fixation blocks (12 sec each) during which subjects passively viewed a cross at the Ribociclib center of the screen (total task duration: 10 min, 48 sec). To familiarize with the task design, participants practiced a short version of the paradigm that contained a different set of stimuli from that used during the fMRI session. Stimuli were Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical projected onto a back projection screen throughout a LCD video projector while reaction times (RT) and responses at each trial were recorded via an MRI compatible fiber optic button box response controlled by LabVIEW

(National Instruments, Austin, TX, RT and response accuracy were entered in separate analyses of variance (ANOVA) models assessing: (1) the main effect of task; (2) the main effect of group (PD-Off, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical controls); (3) the group by task interaction (PD-Off, Controls × high-, medium-, and low-load working memory); (4) the main effect of treatment (PD-Off, PD-On); (5) the treatment by task interaction (PD-Off, PD-On × high-, medium-, and low-load working memory); and (6) linear and quadratic interactions between treatment and DAT levels in PD patients (PD-Off, PD-On × DAT levels). MRI acquisition MRI scanning was performed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical on a 3.0 Tesla Unit with an 8-channels head Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical coil (Discovery MR-750, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI). Head movements during scanning were minimized using comfortable foam pads around participants’ head. A T1-weighted structural scan was obtained (368 sagittal slices, 1-mm thickness each; repetition time 9.2 msec; echo time 3.7 msec; voxel size 1 × 1 × 1 mm) to allow the cortical and subcortical segmentation procedures Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical that were necessary for the quantitative analysis of DAT level (see Cortical and subcortical segmentation and Quantitative DAT imaging of the striatum sections).

fMRI data were acquired with echo planar images (EPI) sensitive to the BOLD contrast (35 axial slices, 3-mm thickness each; repetition time 2000 msec; echo time 25 msec; voxel size 3 × 3 × 3 mm). DAT acquisition PD patients underwent the 123-iodine-fluoropropyl-single-photon emission Sclareol computed tomography scan (123-I-FP-SPECT) on a separate day within 2 weeks before or after the fMRI sessions. Of note, PD patients were Off-therapy during the DAT acquisition (i.e., 12 h prior to DAT scanning, all medications for PD were withdrawn). Patients received perclorate (1000 mg) 30 min before scanning to block the thyroid uptake of free radioactive iodine. Brain imaging was performed 3 h after the administration of 200 MBq of 123-I-FP (GE-Amersham, Eindhoven, the Netherlands) using a dual-headed gamma camera (Infinia Hawkeye, General Electric, Milwaukee, WI) equipped with low-energy, high-resolution collimators.

This has been applied recently for the identification of pathways

This has been applied recently for the identification of pathways altered upon

differentiation of inner cell mass and trophectoderm in the human blastocyst47 and upon hormoneinduced aging of the human skin.48 The procedure is based on pathway annotation (for example provided by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes [KEGG] pathway database).49 This information is then translated into a two-dimensional statistical test problem that involves Wilcoxon’s signed rank sum test in order to compute a Z-score for each pathway that quantifies the degree of alteration across the different experimental conditions. The results of the pathway analysis #UMI-77 in vivo keyword# in the latter study, for example, implicate the involvement of several metabolic pathways in the aging process, such as C21 -steroid hormone metabolism, phospholipid degradation, prostaglandin and leukotriene metabolism, 2,4-dichloro benzoate degradation, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Interestingly, pathways operative Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in neurodegenerative disease such as Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Huntington’s disease (HD),50,51

dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA),52 and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)53 also showed significant age-dependent expression changes. Databases, standardization initiatives, and common platforms It has been recognized that, there is a fundamental need worldwide to share microarray data in order to correlate researchers’ results with already published data. Since for such a task it is necessary to provide the raw data, large microarray databases have been set up as public repositories (for

example the gene expression omnibus (GEO) from NCBI54 and ArrayExpress from EBT55). Functional annotation is provided by the GO consortium.56 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical The aim of GO is to maintain a consistent, speciesindependent, functional description of gene products. GO terms have a. defined parent-child relationship and form a directed acyclic graph (DAG). At, the root, of the GO are the three top-level categories – molecular function, biological process, and Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical cellular component – which contain many levels of child nodes (GO terms) that describe a gene product with increasing specificity. There are several tools for mining these annotations. We have developed the GOblet server that computes GO-term graph annotation for DNA sequences comprising several different sequence databases.57,58 A particular data repository for neuroscience applications is the National Brain Databank, isothipendyl a publicly accessible gene expression repository for the collection and dissemination of results from postmortem studies of neurological and psychiatric disorders. The project has been developed by the Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center (HBTRC) in collaboration with Akaza Research, as an online resource for the neuroscience community. A further useful database for drug discovery and drug response screening is PharmGKB.

These findings probably reflect cultural characteristics of Dane

These findings probably reflect cultural characteristics of Danes, and

have led to small revisions to the Danish DTQP. The selleck chemical slightly revised question protocol is now targeted to Danish patients, with the intent and overall form of the original intact. Based on these experiences, it is recommended that Dignity Therapists need to be culturally sensitive when applying this intervention. Based on the conclusion that it is feasible to administer the DTQP for Danish patients admitted to palliative care, we are now proceeding to undertake a formal evaluation of DT in a prospective, longitudinal intervention study. Abbreviations ‘DT’: Dignity Therapy; ‘DTQP’: Dignity Therapy Question Protocol; ‘EORTC’: Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical European Organisation

for Research and Treatment of Cancer. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions LJH participated in the design of the study, conducted the interviews with professionals, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical conducted 8 DT ‘s, analyzed the data and drafted the manuscript. LJK, HMC, SRH and MG participated in the design of the study, supervised the interviews and participated in the analysis Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and discussion of results and writing of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Pre-publication history The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: Supplementary Material Additional file 1: Results from feasibility testing of Dignity Therapy.doc’. The additional file 1 contains a table depicting the results from the feasibility testing of the DT interviews. It consists of qualitative comments Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical from professionals and patient data from the Dignity Therapy interviews. Furthermore, it contains Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical an overview of the frequency with which questions from the Dignity Therapy question protocol were asked and answered. Click here for file(90K, DOC) Acknowledgements The authors would like to express

profound gratitude to all patients and professionals for participation. We thank the project nurse and the three other therapists for their engagement, persistence and endless patience. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase We also thank the participating departments in Copenhagen; Sankt Lukas Hospice, the Department of Palliative Medicine, Bispebjerg Hospital and the gynecology outpatient clinic in the gynecologic oncology department, Rigshospitalet for helping implementing DT and the study in their setting and for including patients. The Danish Cancer Society funded the study. The local Ethics Committee approved the study (journal number (KF) 01 271850).
The concern for good care for people in the last phase of their lives is common to all eras. But since the 1990 s, health care policy and science have tended to focus more on the essence of palliative care.