Worse yet, Linus Pauling, one of the greatest chemists of the twentieth century and the only person to win two individual Nobel prizes, was adamantly Alvespimycin nmr against the notion
that quasi-periodical crystals exist. In the October 10, 1985 issue of Nature he published a rebuttal article claiming that these irregularly shaped crystals were formed by a natural process Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical called icosahedral twinning, several intergrown crystals whose shared boundary gives rise to a composite diffraction pattern. In paper after paper published in prestigious journals such as the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and Science News, Pauling continued his crusade to debunk the entire notion of quasi-periodical crystals. During an American Chemical Society conference at Stanford, in front of thousands of scientists, Pauling proclaimed Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical “Danny Shechtman is talking nonsense. There is no such thing as quasi-crystals, only quasi-scientists.” It took three years for scientists to develop methods to grow these crystals to the size needed for X-ray diffraction. I received X-ray diffraction patterns from scientists Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in Japan and France who confirmed that these crystals were quasi-periodical and that their structure had icosahedral symmetry (Figure 8). When I presented these findings
at the International Union of Crystallographers meeting in Perth, Australia in 1987, they said, “OK, Danny, now you are talking.” Figure 8 X-ray transmission Laue photograph of the quasi-crystal i-ZnMgHo, courtesy of An-Pang Tsai, Japan. A committee was formed that redefined crystals. This represented a very significant Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical paradigm shift. In 1992, the International Union of Crystallographers came out with a new definition of crystals which reads as follows: “… By crystal we mean any solid having an essentially discrete diffraction diagram, and by aperiodic crystal we mean any crystal in which three dimensional lattice periodicity can be considered to be absent.” This is Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical a humble
definition, an open definition. Humble scientists much are good scientists. They are open to listen to new ideas. They ask questions and critique, but do not knock down and dismiss ideas just because they do not fit their preconceived notions. Supported by the American Chemical Society members, Linus Pauling refused to accept the growing evidence for quasi-periodic crystals until his death in 1994. By the late 1980s, the tide was already turning regarding the existence of quasi-periodical crystals. All of Pauling’s alternative models which purported to explain the quasi-periodical crystals were proven wrong, and after Pauling’s death opposition to my discovery ceased. Not long after publication of my first article on the subject, I was given a book called The Structure of Scientific Revolutions written by the philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn.